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Classification of Fraxinus L.

The genus Fraxinus, the Ashes, is one of 24 extant genera in the Oleaceae family. The table below lists the 48 species I recognize in the genus. Some of the species are linked to photos and other information. There are much synonymy in Fraxinus and I am only listing the most common ones. The sectional delimitation is based on a molecular phylogeny (Wallander 2008).

The molecular phylogeny and a proposed new classification was first included in my PhD thesis (Wallander 2001). The molecular analysis was thereafter expanded and the classification revised (Wallander 2008). In 2012 I updated it and accepted six more species and in 2013 two species were merged. Currently, the 48 species below are accepted (Wallander 2013).

Section Species Common synonyms English nameDistribution
Dipetalae anomala Torr. ex S. Wats. lowelli Sarg., potosina T. S. Brandeg. Dwarf Ash, Singleleaf Ash, Utah Ash SW USA, C Mexico
dipetala Hook. et Arn. jonesii Lingelsh., trifoliata (Torr.) Lewis & Epling, parryi Moran Two-petal Ash, Foothill Ash, California Flowering Ash SW USA, NW Mexico (Baja California)
quadrangulata Michx.   Blue Ash E & C USA, C Canada
Ornus apertisquamifera Hara     Japan
baroniana Diels   Baroni's ash China
bungeana DC   Bunge's Ash China
chinensis Roxb. ssp. chinensis caudata J. L. Wu, lingelsheimii Rehder, medicinalis S. S. Sun, rhynchophylla Hance var. huashanensis J. L. Wu & Z. W. Xie, sargentiana Lingelsh., szaboana Lingelsh., yunnanensis Lingelsh. Chinese Ash China, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand
chinensis Roxb. ssp. rhynchophylla (Hance) E. Murray japonica Blume ex K. Koch, rhynchophylla Hance Korean Ash China, Korea, Japan, SE Russia
floribunda Wall. retusa Champ. ex Benth., insularis Hemsl., odontocalyx Handel-Mazzetti ex E. Peter, stylosa Lingelsh., fallax Lingelsh. Himalayan Ash Afghanistan through Himalaya to SE Asia
griffithii G. B. Clarke bracteata Hemsley, ferruginea Lingelsh., formosana Hayata, philippinensis Merr., guilinensis S.K. Lee & F.N. Wei Griffith's Ash, Evergreen Ash SE Asia (from NE India to Japan and Indonesia)
hopeiensis Tang     China
lanuginosa Koidz.   Japanese Flowering Ash Japan
longicuspis Sieb. & Zucc. borealis Nakai Japanese Ash Japan
malacophylla Hemsl. retusifoliolata Feng ex P. Y. Bai   China, Thailand
micrantha Lingelsh.     Himalaya
ornus L.   Manna Ash Mediterranean area, N Africa and SW Asia
paxiana Lingelsh. depauperata (Lingelsh.) Z. Wei, sikkimensis (Lingelsh.) Handel-Mazzetti, suaveolens W. W. Smith Pax’s ash Himalaya, China
raibocarpa Regel     C Asia
sieboldiana Blume mariesii Hook. f. Chinese Flowering Ash China, Japan, Korea
trifoliolata W. W. Smith punctata S. Y. Hu   China
Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl ssp. angustifolia rotundifolia Mill. (nom. rejected), parvifolia Lam. (nom. illegit.) oxyphylla ssp. angustifolia (Vahl) P. Fourn., oxycarpa Willd. var. angustifolia (Vahl) Lingelsh., excelsior L. ssp. excelsior var. angustifolia (Vahl) Fiori & Paol. Narrow-leaved Ash SW Europe, NW Africa
angustifolia Vahl ssp. oxycarpa (M.Bieb. ex Willd.) Franco & Rocha Afonso oxycarpa Willd., oxyphylla M. Bieb. (nom. illeg.), pallisiae A. J. Willmott, pojarkoviana V.N.Vassil. Caucasian Ash SE & C Europe
angustifolia Vahl ssp. syriaca (Boiss.) Yalt. syriaca Boiss., oxycarpa Willd. var. syriaca (Boiss.) Yalt., potamophila Herder, regelii Dippel, sogdiana Bunge, turkestanica Carr. Syrian Ash Turkey to C Asia
excelsior L. coriariifolia Scheele Common Ash, European Ash C & N Europe
mandshurica Rupr. nigra ssp. mandshurica (Rupr.) S. S. Sun, mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. Manchurian Ash E Asia (China, Japan, Korea, E Russia)
nigra Marsh. sambucifolia Lam. Black Ash E USA, SE Canada
Melioides albicans Buckl. texensis (Gray) Sarg., americana L. var. texensis A. Gray, americana L. ssp. texensis (Gray) G. N. Miller Texas Ash SW USA (Oklahoma, Texas), N Mexico
americana L.   White Ash, American ash E USA, SE Canada
berlandieriana DC. americana L. var. berlandieriana (DC.) Wesmael, pubescens Lam. var. berlandieriana (DC.) Wenz., pubescens Lam. var. lindheimeri Wenz., trialata Buckl., viridis Michx. var. berlandieriana (DC.) A. Gray, viridis Michx. var. trialata (Buckley) Schelle Berlandier Ash, Mexican Ash SW USA, NE, C & E Mexico
biltmoreana Beadle americana L. var. biltmoreana (Beadle) J.Wright Biltmore Ash E USA
caroliniana Mill. platycarpa Michx., triptera Nutt., rehderiana Lingelsh. Water Ash, Carolina Ash, Pop Ash SE USA
coriacea S. Wats. velutina var. coriacea (S. Wats.) Rehd., pistaciaefolia Torr. var. coriacea (S. Wats.) Leather-leaved Ash SW USA, NW Mexico
cubensis Griseb. caroliniana Mill. var. cubensis (Griseb.) Lingelsh., caroliniana Mill. ssp. cubensis (Griseb.) Borh., pennsylvanica Marsh. var. cubensis (Griseb.) E. Murray Cuban Water Ash S Florida, Cuba
latifolia Benth. oregona Nutt., pennsylvanica Marsh. ssp. oregona (Wesmael) Mill. Oregon Ash W USA, SW Canada
papillosa Lingelsh.   Chihuahuan Ash SW USA, N Mexico
pauciflora Nutt. floridana (Wenzig) Sarg., hybrida Lingelsh., profunda var. ashei E. J. Palmer Swamp white ash, pop white ash, water white ash, Florida Ash SE USA (Florida, S Georgia)
pennsylvanica Marsh. lanceolata Borkh., pubescens Lam., tomentosa Michx. f. (nom. rej.) Red Ash, Green Ash C & E USA, S Canada
profunda (Bush) Bush tomentosa Michx. f. (has been applied to profunda but nomenclaturally a synonym of pennsylvanica), michauxii Britt., americana L. var. profunda Bush, pennsylvanica Marsh. var. profunda (Bush) Sudworth, pennsylvanica Marsh. ssp. profunda (Bush) A. E. Murray michauxii Britt. Pumpkin Ash E USA, Canada
smallii Britt. americana L. var. coriacea Sarg. Small’s Ash E USA
uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh. americana L. var. uhdei Wenzig, cavekiana Standley & Steyerm., chiapensis Lundell, hondurensis Standley Shamel Ash, Tropical Ash, Fresno Mexico, C America, cult. Hawaii, Puerto Rico
velutina Torr pennsylvanica Marsh. ssp. velutina (Torr.) G. N. Miller, attenuata M.E. Jones, pistaciaefolia Torr., toumeyi Britton, standleyi Rehder, toumeyi Britt. Velvet Ash, Arizona Ash, Desert Ash, Smooth Ash, Toumey Ash, Fresno SW USA, N & C Mexico
Pauciflorae schideana Schlecht. & Cham. dubia (Willd. ex Schult & Schult f.) P. S. Green & M. Nee, petenensis Lundell   E Mexico, Guatemala
gooddingii Little   Goodding's Ash SW USA (Arizona), N Mexico (Sonora)
greggii A. Gray schiedeana Schlecht. & Cham. var. parviflora Torr, nummularis M. E. Jones Gregg's Ash, Littleleaf Ash SW USA (Texas), NE & C Mexico
purpusii Brandegee vellerea Standley & Steyerm., bicolor Standley & Steyerm.   NE & C Mexico, Guatemala
rufescens Lingelsh.     C Mexico
Sciadanthus xanthoxyloides (G. Don) Wall. ex DC. dimorpha Coss. & Dur. Afghan Ash, Algerian Ash NW Africa (Algeria, Morocco) and Himalayas
hubeiensis S. Z. Qu, C. B. Shang & P. L. Su     China
incertae sedis cuspidata Torr. macropetala Eastw. Fragrant Ash, Flowering Ash SW USA, N Mexico
chiisanensis Nakai     Korea
platypoda Oliv. spaethiana Lingelsh. China, Japan

Maintained by Eva Wallander | Last updated: 2022-01-22